the various measures
and techniques employed to control and reduce pain.
DSM as an
disorder, sufferers experience attacks?that are
unpredictable, and involve intense feelings of apprehension,
symptoms of chest pain, dizziness and heavy
refers to how something
is said rather than what is said, including pauses and tone of voice.
an explanation of
information processing, whereby two or more mental processes can be carried
is a disturbed thought process characterised by excessive
anxiety or fear, often to the point of
a subcategory of
schizophrenia, whereby an individual
possesses an organised and systematic set of
hallucinations, including that of
refers to a
psychology that seeks to explain the paranormal
(which cannot be explained in terms of normal sensory
parasympathetic nervous system:
sympathetic nervous system, comprises
autonomic nervous system of the body. The
parasympathetic system is
antagonistic to the
nervous system, by conserving and restoring bodily energy to
restore the organism to a state of calm and relaxation.
the region of the
cortex behind the
frontal lobe and above
the lateral fissure, containing the
important for the sense of touch.
neurological disorder, typified by difficulties
in movement, for instance a continual rapid tremor in the
limbs, a lack of sensory-motor co-ordination and a tendency
to be continually tired. The condition is thought to be
caused by problems in the production of the
philosophy of science, the principle that the simplest
possible explanation should always be sought for any event.
operant conditioning, a contingency of reinforcement
whereby a response is rewarded or punished only some of the
in research, an individual who is the object of study or who
participates in an
research method involving direct participation of the
researcher in the events being studied.
confounding effects that result from the
characteristics of the
participants that may influence the
results, such as differences in age,
of hunger or level of
loss of the father, or growing up without a steady father
figure may have
deprivation effects, including a range of
emotional and social disturbances depending on the nature
and length of the absence.
of being diseased or
theories describe and
diagnose the sources of
pathological social behavior in individuals.
the process by which we transform and organise the raw
sensory information into a meaningful whole.
Maslow, a temporary, profound and intense experience of
enhanced awareness, frequently accompanied by feelings of
feeling fully alive.
individual who is in some way equal to the person with whom
they are being compared on a specific dimension.
unit of (typically) same-age peers who share common values
and standards of behaviour.
of selection, meaningful organisation and interpretation of
information from the
the tendency for objects to provide the same perceptual
experience despite changes in the retinal image, e.g.
phenomenon whereby words that have a high degree of
emotional content or might be considered ‘taboo‘ are
perceptually recognised less easily than neutral
the systematic development and maturation of perceptual
abilities and processes over time.
processes that combine incoming sensory information into a
coherent, meaningful perceptual experience. For instance,
the ability to perceive patterns and to judge size and
distance in a three-dimensional scene.
system: nerves outside the
spinal cord and
brain (not part of the
central nervous system).
to be badly treated, oppressed
or harassed usually because of beliefs,
gender, race, religion or
physical region around us that we deem to be our own, in
order to regulate interactions with others.
personality: a set of
qualities that make a person (or thing) distinct from
a group of disorders
pathological trends in personality structure. It may
show itself by lack of good judgment or poor relationships
with others, accompanied by little
and no personal sense of distress.
a self-report questionnaire that is designed to measure
personality characteristics, through questions on personal
thoughts, feelings and behaviours. The
Personality Inventory (EPI) measures personality along
the dimensions of
neuroticism – stability and
intentional efforts to alter attitudes.
development disorder (PDD): refers to a group of
five disorders characterised by delays in the development of
multiple basic functions including
socialisation and communication. The most commonly known
PET (positron emission tomography) scans:
a technique for imaging
activity by recording the
metabolic activity in different regions of the
brain during different
cognitive or behavioural activities,
through injecting a radioactive substance.
the third stage of development in
Freud’s theory, from about
3 to 5 years of age, during which the source of
gratification is focused on the genitals.
a mysterious phenomenon experienced by amputees who often
continue to experience sensations which seem to originate
from the missing limb.
the scientific sense, a phenomenon is an observable
occurrence, pattern, or relationship between events.
pertaining to the way things appear or are experienced; in
humanistic approach, a reference to the emphasis on an
perceptions and feelings as defining the
meaning of their behaviour.
observed characteristics of the individual, that manifest as
a combination of genetic and environmental influences.
is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning
matters such as existence, knowledge, truth, justice,
beauty, validity, mind, and language.
of mind: is the
philosophy that studies the nature of the
mind, mental events, mental functions, mental
and their relationship to the physical body, particularly
philosophy of perception:
concerns how mental processes and
symbols depend on the world
internal and external to the perceiver.
philosophy of science:
is the study of assumptions, foundations, and implications
or pertaining to
philosophy; a certain critical, creative
way of thinking.
phobic disorders (phobias):
a type of
anxiety disorder, of a
irrational fear of an object or situation that is often
unreasonable and unfounded in proportion to the threat, and
which may interfere with an individuals function in daily
minimal units of speech, that create differences in speech
production and reception.
and development of a species. See
refers to the evolution and development of an
a state where the body has adapted to and has become
dependent on drugs, and sudden absence can result in
the way that living things function rather than to their
shape or structure.
scientists who study living organisms and how their parts
Piaget (1896-1980): a Swiss
developmental psychologist whose work has had a huge
psychology and education. Piaget defined four sequential
cognitive development; the sensorimotor, preoperational,
concrete operational and formal operational stages, each
characterised by different ways of thinking. Through
development a child develops ?a target=”_blank” href=”https://psychology.net.in/dictionary/s#schema”>schemas?
(mental representations), which are used to solve new
problems (?a target=”_blank” href=”https://psychology.net.in/dictionary/a#assimilation”>assimilation?
schema is also changed to solve new experiences
of, relating to, or dealing with
Jean Piaget or his
theories, or methods especially with respect to
completed a famous experiment demonstrating diffusion of
responsibility by exploring factors that influence helping
behavior of bystanders.
a small gland located next to the
endocrine functions, including the secretion
hormones, and secretes
hormones that in turn
hormone secretions in other glands. For instance, a
hormone called ACTH is released during
stress, which in turn
triggers the release of
steroids from the
cortex of the
chemically inert substance administered instead of a real
participants display improvements after being administered a
placebo, on the belief that it has beneficial powers even
though it has none.
Freuds proposal that humans are
motivated to achieve
immediate and maximal pleasure, regardless of the cost.
the pons trigger dreaming
and awakening from sleep.
group to which the results of the study are intended to
apply to and from which those individuals selected to
participate in the study will be drawn.
a relationship between two measured variables where as
one measure increases the other measured variable increases
unconditional positive regard.
operant conditioning, a process of increasing the
likelihood of a response by immediately following the
response with a desirable stimulus (a positive
behaviours related to a mental disorder which do not occur
in healthy persons; for example,
a subject’s inability to remember something that happened
while they were
a type of
anxiety disorder that arises as a consequence of the
experience of a
traumatic event, such as a life-threatening
event. Symptoms typically involve a persistent re-experience
of the event, through
synapse, of or pertaining to the
neuron that bears receptors for
neurotransmitter released into the synaptic cleft by the
memories not in a persons immediate
attention but that can be called into awareness at any
an indicator of validity based on whether a test can
accurately predict future performance on the measure in
learned negative attitude, comprised of negative affective
stereotypes towards a person or group. Behavioural
manifestation is labelled ‘discrimination‘
refers to the
axonal end of the
neuron where the
synapse may be
inhibited or stimulated to release
presented first to a
participant is more likely to be
remembered than material subsequently presented.
the individual that holds primary responsibility for the care of an
infant, often the biological mother.
strategies that aim to prevent disease in currently healthy
individuals, by focusing on the development of good health
habits and discouraging poor ones.
reinforcers based on
innate biological significance, such
as food or water.
a phenomenon whereby previous exposure to a word or
situation, improves implicit
memory and increases the
activation of associated thoughts or
for people to behave in a manner that is consistent, with existing, underlying attitudes.
a numerical measure of the chance that something will happen,
expressed as a number between 1 (certainty) and 0
(impossibility). A probability of 0.05 is typically used in
psychological investigations to represent the probability of
an effect found occurring if the
null hypothesis is
true, ie. The results are purely due to chance factors.
for how-to?information, that we have no conscious access
to, for instance, how to ride a bike.
when used in
clinical psychology, refers to the expected
eventual outcome of a disorder.
which unwanted thoughts are externalised or projected onto
a type of
personality assessment during which an
individual is asked to interpret an ambiguous, abstract
stimulus and an individuals response will reveal
unconscious and hidden feelings, motives and conflicts.
behaviour that is believed to help other individuals.
ethical requirement whereby researchers must minimise any
risk or harm to
a factor which is a direct influence on behaviour, such as
one’s attitude or an aspect of the immediate situation.
term for the totality of each persons psychic contents.
doctors who possess an M.D. degree and may prescribe
medications for the treatment of
is a general term for approaches to
which attempt to provide a conceptual framework more-or-less
independent of clinical practice rather than based on
empirical analysis of clinical cases.
type of psychodynamic therapy devised by
Freud, in line with
the assumptions of
unconscious conflict and
Therapy aims for the patient to gain a deeper
understanding of their own
unconscious thoughts and feelings
through free association and
the branch of
social psychology that deals with the processes and
emotions that determine
a perspective that views behaviour in terms of past
childhood experiences, and the influence of
processes, drives and conflicts.
to the way that living things function rather than to their
shape or structure i.e. mental or emotional as opposed
to physical in nature.
the reliance upon and beliefs that are held when individuals
addicted to drugs.
a psychological disorder of
thought or emotion; a more neutral term than mental illness.
is a subdivision of
that studies the neural mechanisms of
perception and behavior through direct manipulation of
brains of nonhuman animal subjects in controlled
psychologist: means a
person who by years of study, training and experience has
achieved professional recognition and standing in the field
the scientific study of the behavior and mental processes.
the testing of individuals to measure competence in a
specific area of functioning, e.g.
the study of the effects that drugs have on behaviour.
the study of the relationship between
stimuli and the mental events that arise as a result of
stimuli. The methods developed are fundamental to
the branch of
psychology that is concerned with the
physiological bases of
any major mental disorder that involves loss of contact with
reality. This usually includes
a person afflicted with
psychological and/or social aspects of health, disease,
treatment, and/or rehabilitation.
procedures conducted on
brain tissue to alleviate the
symptoms of severe
of treatment for
abnormal behaviour which is primarily
verbal in nature, rather than based on the use of drugs.
psychoanalytic theory, a description of how a child
progresses through set stages that vary according to the
gratification (oral, anal, genital) and by the
person towards which this feeling is directed at.
a type of territory where there is a low amount of occupation and
perception of ownership, for instance a beach.
conditioning, a process whereby a response is followed by a
negative reinforcer, which results in a decrease in the
probability of the response.
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